and the Beginning of the Frontier's End (2012)
Chief Joseph (1877), the killing of Crazy Horse (1877) and Sitting Bull (1890), and the Massacre at Wounded Knee (1890).
In 1845 Little Crow returned from his travels west to take over leadership of his tribe, since his father (also named Little Crow) had died; the village was on the Mississippi River across from what would become St. Paul. Little Crow was a Mdewakanton Dakota, and his warriors on this day were very agitated, and the tensions with area whites was very high. Little Crow was informed of the "Egg Incident" of the previous day: the version the warriors told Little Crow was that they had asked for some food/drink from a white farmer 80 miles from their village on the southern banks of the Minnesota River. The warriors claimed that they had been wrongly accused of stealing eggs and of being cowards, and that they were dared to shoot their weapons by whites.
Little Crow listened to what the warriors said, saying nothing. Little Crow knew it was impossible to turn back the tide of the advancing white population, since like Red Cloud he had seen with his own eyes the reality of what was coming from the East. Little Crow also knew that the killings near Acton, MN would not go unpunished, in that the Dakota as a whole would be held responsible for the actions of a few. Little Crow, far more than the other Dakota, knew that his people and the whites in Minnesota could no longer pretend to peacefully coexist.
Little Crow scolded the 4 warriors for their decision-making and impulsiveness . . . and for their intoxication. Little Crow stated that the murder of the women in particular was bad news for the Dakota, in that an onslaught of great magnitude was coming that the Dakota would not be able to withstand. The delayed annuity payments would never arrive, and what was left of Dakota lands would be lost to the whites; they would be forced west to unknown lands. One of the enraged Dakota warriors shouted out that Little Crow was a coward.
Little Crow was in the middle of the spectrum compared to the hot-headed warriors who wanted war, and the Peace Chiefs (who were older than Little Crow). The consensus of the council was to go to war, and woe to any Dakota that didn't join in the fight. War parties were immediately formed to go into the night and kill whites. As for Little Crow, in his mind, he had chosen Death With Honor, not war . . .
of the Governor of Minnesota . . .